Part Two
Musical Instrument – Gong 
(in India) by Preeti Poojara
In Eastern parts of India, flat gongs made from bronze are called using various terms. In Orissa and West Bengal, they are called kansar derived from the Sanskrit term kamsya meaning bronze or bell-metal. Some literary references can also be found about gongs among the ancient literature of India. In an economic treatise Arthshastra written during the Maurya dynasty, it is mentioned that kamsa-tala or bronze gongs were manufactured by the workers using different proportions of bronze alloys. Rasaratnasamuccaya, the 12th century alchemical text and Cilappattikaram, a Tamil classic, document gongs as kamsya or kancam meaning flat gongs manufactured using bronze alloy. 
Flat gongs were used in various parts of India during traditional dance performances. Kathakali, traditional dance and drama form originated in the state of Kerala, uses flat gong known as cennalam as a part of an ensemble. The ensemble consists of various types of drums such as barrel drum, cylindrical drum, hour glass drum etc. Flat gong cymbals are also used for time keeping. The main function of cennalam during the performance is to follow rhythmic patterns of drums and mark the time during the performance. Traveling troupes of Karnataka also use flat gongs as a part of musical ensembles consisting of two drums, a flat gong and cymbals while performing yakshagana, a form of dance.